Good news to all Diabetes patients that the vaccine for Diabetes has been found in America. In the United States alone, 1.25 million people suffer from type 1 diabetes. A vaccine used over 100 years ago for tuberculosis (bacillus Calmette-Guerin ) has shown promise in reversing this disease.
This vaccine is now commonly used for treating bladder cancer and is considered to be safe. An announcement made at the 75th Scientific Sessions of the American Diabetes Association said that the FDA will test the vaccine on 150 people who are in an advanced stage of type one diabetes.
Diabetes, often referred to by doctors as diabetes mellitus, describes a group of metabolic diseases in which the person has high blood glucose (blood sugar), either because insulin production is inadequate, or because the body’s cells do not respond properly to insulin, or both. Patients with high blood sugar will typically experience polyuria (frequent urination), they will become increasingly thirsty (polydipsia) and hungry (polyphagia).
The body of a person with type 1 diabetes does not produce insulin due to the immune system destroying the cells that create insulin. T cells are produced, and these cells create problems in the pancreatic islets, where insulin is produced. The vaccine works by eliminating these T cells.
Patients with diabetes injected with the vaccine saw an increase in the levels of a substance called tumor necrosis factor. The increased level of TNF in the system destroys the T cells that are hindering the production of insulin.
Type 1 diabetes occurs when the body’s immune system, which normally protects against infection and illness, attacks cells in the pancreas that make insulin – the hormone that regulates levels of glucose in the blood.
Current treatments for Type 1 diabetes focus on replacing lost insulin, and provide an effective way to minimise life-threatening complications.
However, they involve a lifetime of insulin injections or an insulin pump and don’t treat the underlying ‘autoimmune’ attack.
As known Vaccination is the administration of antigenic material (a vaccine) to stimulate an individual’s immune system to develop adaptive immunity to a pathogen. Vaccines can prevent or ameliorate morbidity from infection. When a sufficiently large percentage of a population has been vaccinated, this results in herd immunity. The effectiveness of vaccination has been widely studied and verified.
In a previous trial, patients were injected with the tuberculosis vaccine twice within a four-week time frame. The results showed that the dangerous T cells were gone, and some people even began to secrete insulin on their own.
Dr. Denise Faustman, director of the Massachusetts General Hospital Immunobiology Laboratory in Boston, is very excited about the results the BCG vaccine has been showing.
“In the phase I (preliminary) trial we demonstrated a statistically significant response to BCG, but our goal in (this trial) is to create a lasting therapeutic response. We will be working again with people who have had type 1 diabetes for many years. This is not a prevention trial; instead, we are trying to create a regimen that will treat even advanced disease” explained Dr. Denise.
There’s a new trial coming which will use the same format as the previous one, on people at the age between 18 and 60. The subjects will be injected with the vaccine twice in a period of 4 weeks, and then once a year for a 4-year time span.
The Diabetes Care journal has published the results of a past study which analyzed the effects of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) on kids with diabetes at the age between 5 and 18. The results showed that the BCG vaccine doesn’t keep the beta-cell function or raise the remission rate in kids.
Also, news of a successful trial of a diabetes vaccine for type 1 diabetes has been covered by BBC News, who reported that, “It may be possible to reverse type 1 diabetes by training a patient’s own immune system to stop attacking their body.”
WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TYPE 1 AND TYPE 2 DIABETES?
Type 1 diabetes
-Type 1 develops when the insulin-producing cells in the body have been destroyed, leaving the body unable to produce any insulin at all.
-Everyone diagnosed with type 1 is treated with insulin.
-Scientists don’t know why the insulin-producing cells are destroyed in people with the condition.
-It is thought to be caused by an abnormal, autoimmune, reaction to the cells, which could be triggered by a virus or other infection.
-Experts believe there is a genetic element to type 1 diabetes.
-It is more common in some parts of the world than others.
-Unlike type 2, type 1 diabetes has nothing to do with lifestyle or weight.
-The condition can develop at any age, but is usually diagnosed before the age of 40, most commonly in late childhood.
-Around 10 per cent of the 2.9 million people diagnosed with diabetes in the UK have type 1.
Type 2 diabetes
-The condition develops when the body is still able to make insulin, but not enough.
-It also develops when the insulin that is produced by the body does not work properly – known as insulin resistance.
-Initially, type 2 diabetes can be controlled with a healthy diet and regular exercise.
-Medication is also often required and a large number of sufferers eventually progress to needing insulin.
-People who are overweight and have a large waist, are more likely to be diagnosed with type 2 diabetes – it is the biggest risk factor.
-Those who have a close relative with the condition, or who are from a black or South Asian background are also at increased risk.
-The condition usually affects those aged over 40, but people from South –Asia are commonly affected from the age of 25.
-Around 90 per cent of the 2.9 million people diagnosed with diabetes in the UK have type 2.
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